锘??xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" standalone="yes"?>C++鍗氬-鏉?/title><link>http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/</link><description>鏉板摜濂?鍝?#37725;?</description><language>zh-cn</language><lastBuildDate>Wed, 22 May 2019 21:41:11 GMT</lastBuildDate><pubDate>Wed, 22 May 2019 21:41:11 GMT</pubDate><ttl>60</ttl><item><title>2018璋锋瓕瀛︽湳褰?#37725;?#37716;涙帓鍚嶅嚭鐐夛細CVPR杩涘叆鍓?0锛孯esNet琚紩鏈澶?#26473;?#28051;囨锛?/title><link>http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/05/17/216377.html</link><dc:creator>鏉板摜</dc:creator><author>鏉板摜</author><pubDate>Fri, 17 May 2019 14:59:00 GMT</pubDate><guid>http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/05/17/216377.html</guid><wfw:comment>http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/comments/216377.html</wfw:comment><comments>http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/05/17/216377.html#Feedback</comments><slash:comments>0</slash:comments><wfw:commentRss>http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/comments/commentRss/216377.html</wfw:commentRss><trackback:ping>http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/services/trackbacks/216377.html</trackback:ping><description><![CDATA[ 鏉ユ簮?#32048;scholar.google.com 浣滆咃細闂昏彶 銆愭柊鏅哄厓瀵艰銆?#29835;锋瓕瀛︽湳?#27120;澶?#37721;戣〃?#31777;2018骞?#37832;?#26570;?#27537;瀛︽湳鏈熷垔鍜屼細璁?#35120;?#37725;?#37716;涙帓鍚?#38171;孋VPR鍜孨IPS鍒?#37714;帓鍚?#32471;?0鍜?#32471;?4銆傚湪?#24083;鍚?#32471;?#28051;?#27537;Nature閲?#38171;?#26473;囧幓5骞?#29722;紩?#25956;娆℃暟鏈楂樼殑璁?#37826;?#38171;?#23005;?#37828;?#23075;卞害瀛?#28052;?#28051;?#28598;?#32449;濰inton銆丩eCun鍜孊engio鍐欑殑銆婃?#21342;害瀛?#28052;?#37510;?#28051;鏂?#38171;?#38000;孋VPR閲?#29722;紩娆℃暟鏈楂樼殑锛屽垯鏄疪esNet锛屽紩?#25956;娆℃暟?#31220;杩囦簡1涓囨銆? 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?#31777;瑙f洿澶氾細 https://scholar.google.com/citations?view_op=top_venues&hl=zh-CN&vq=en 寮鍞?#38171;? http://www.aiworld2018.com/ 璋锋瓕璁?#32480;?#37832;? 澹?#37828;庯細璇?#37826;?#29785;?#37904;?#28000;?#28000;?#29723;?#28003;滆?#37832;?#27996;?#38171;屾?#28357;?#24876;?#39118;?#35763;俊鎭彂甯?#39582;冲彴锛屾?#28357;嫄浠?#37819;愪緵淇?#37805;?#28699;樺偍绌?#38338;?#37832;?#37716;?#37510;? https://m.sohu.com/a/245182179_473283/?pvid=000115_3w_a (read once)<img src ="http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/aggbug/216377.html" width = "1" height = "1" /><br><br><div align=right><a style="text-decoration:none;" href="http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/" target="_blank">鏉板摜</a> 2019-05-17 22:59 <a href="http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/05/17/216377.html#Feedback" target="_blank" style="text-decoration:none;">鍙戣〃璇?#29825;?/a></div>]]></description></item><item><title>arxiv涓?#28028;爈atex鏂囩珷http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/04/07/216341.html鏉板摜鏉板摜Sun, 07 Apr 2019 00:49:00 GMThttp://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/04/07/216341.htmlhttp://www.kffa.tw/guijie/comments/216341.htmlhttp://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/04/07/216341.html#Feedback0http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/comments/commentRss/216341.htmlhttp://www.kffa.tw/guijie/services/trackbacks/216341.html
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?#28214;瑕佹敞?#21104;锛?#23005;ゆ椂?#22158;涓?#32514;?#29831;戠郴缁熷湪缂?#29831;?tex鏂囦欢?#27537;?#26882;鍊?#38171;?tex閲岄潰绱㈠紩鍥?#37911;囩殑璺?#23536;勯兘鏄渶瑕佸湪鏈澶栧眰璺?#23536;勭殑锛屽洜涓哄浘鐗囧氨鏄?#37824;惧湪鏈澶栧眰?#27537;锛岀劧鑰岀嚎涓?tex閲岄潰?#27537;鍥?#37911;?#32497;㈠紩涓轰簡鏂?#28186;?#38171;?#28051;鑸?#38318;?#37832;?#28610;藉嚑娆?#37929;?#35120;?#38171;屾瘮濡?#28051;?#37733;?#38171;?tex閲岄潰?#25956;鍒板浘鐗囩殑璺?#23536;?#28051;鑸?#38007;?#28751;戣鍔?#28051;?figures/xxx.jpg"锛屽?#20635;?#28358;矾寰?#28051;嶄慨鏀?#37929;存帴涓?#28028;犵殑?#22158;涓?tex鏂囦欢锛岀嚎涓?#32514;?#29831;?#37714;?#37813;?#28051;嶅埌figures鏂囦欢澶?#38000;岀紪璇?#28051;嶄簡锛屾墍浠?#38333;堝姝?#38171;岄渶瑕?#28751;嗙嚎涓?tex閲岄潰?#27537;鎵鏈夋?#22794;強鍒板浘鐗?#32497;㈠紩浣嶇疆?#27537;鍦?#37826;?#37711;?#38318;?#37824;?#28051;?#28051;绾?#32497;㈠紩锛?#37719;崇?#23384;帴绱㈠紩鍥?#37911;?#37722;?#28699;?#38171;屾瘮濡倄xx.jpg銆?/div>
瀵?#23011;?#28051;涓?#38171;岀?#33636;嚎?#27537;.tex鏂囦欢鍙?#38003;?#28641;傚?#25733;細
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閽堝鍘熷.tex涓?#28699;樺湪?#27537;鎵鏈?#32497;㈠紩鍥?#37911;?#38171;?#38318;介渶瑕佹?#35268;垚涓绾?#32497;㈠紩?#22158;涓婃墠鑳?#32514;?#29831;?#38315;?#26473;?#37510;?/div>
缂?#29831;戞垚鍔?#37722;?#38171;屽~涓涓?#37737;?#37832;?#26440;撳嚭?#31223;鎭?#38171;屾瘮濡倀itle锛宎uthor锛宎bstract锛宑omments绛?#32475;夛紝submit鍗冲彲锛宻ubmit涔?#37715;嶅彲浠?#26864;?#29785;?#37922;熸垚?#27537;pdf锛屽?#20635;灉?#22158;涓?#32514;?#29831;戝?#23680;殑?#29304;寮?#32471;?#37722;堥鏈?#37719;冲彲鍙戣〃銆?/div>
銆?/div>
--------------------- 
浣滆咃細鎴慽鏅?#38003;?nbsp;
鏉ユ簮?#32048;CSDN 
鍘?#37826;囷細https://blog.csdn.net/on2way/article/details/85940768 
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]]>[zz] How to Train a GAN? Tips and tricks to make GANs workhttp://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/04/02/216325.html鏉板摜鏉板摜Mon, 01 Apr 2019 21:42:00 GMThttp://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/04/02/216325.htmlhttp://www.kffa.tw/guijie/comments/216325.htmlhttp://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/04/02/216325.html#Feedback0http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/comments/commentRss/216325.htmlhttp://www.kffa.tw/guijie/services/trackbacks/216325.htmlWhile research in Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) continues to improve the fundamental stability of these models, we use a bunch of tricks to train them and make them stable day to day.

Here are a summary of some of the tricks.

Here's a link to the authors of this document

If you find a trick that is particularly useful in practice, please open a Pull Request to add it to the document. If we find it to be reasonable and verified, we will merge it in.

1. Normalize the inputs

  • normalize the images between -1 and 1
  • Tanh as the last layer of the generator output

2: A modified loss function

In GAN papers, the loss function to optimize G is min (log 1-D), but in practice folks practically use max log D

  • because the first formulation has vanishing gradients early on
  • Goodfellow et. al (2014)

In practice, works well:

  • Flip labels when training generator: real = fake, fake = real

3: Use a spherical Z

  • Dont sample from a Uniform distribution

cube

  • Sample from a gaussian distribution

sphere

4: BatchNorm

  • Construct different mini-batches for real and fake, i.e. each mini-batch needs to contain only all real images or all generated images.
  • when batchnorm is not an option use instance normalization (for each sample, subtract mean and divide by standard deviation).

batchmix

5: Avoid Sparse Gradients: ReLU, MaxPool

  • the stability of the GAN game suffers if you have sparse gradients
  • LeakyReLU = good (in both G and D)
  • For Downsampling, use: Average Pooling, Conv2d + stride
  • For Upsampling, use: PixelShuffle, ConvTranspose2d + stride

6: Use Soft and Noisy Labels

  • Label Smoothing, i.e. if you have two target labels: Real=1 and Fake=0, then for each incoming sample, if it is real, then replace the label with a random number between 0.7 and 1.2, and if it is a fake sample, replace it with 0.0 and 0.3 (for example).
    • Salimans et. al. 2016
  • make the labels the noisy for the discriminator: occasionally flip the labels when training the discriminator

7: DCGAN / Hybrid Models

  • Use DCGAN when you can. It works!
  • if you cant use DCGANs and no model is stable, use a hybrid model : KL + GAN or VAE + GAN

8: Use stability tricks from RL

  • Experience Replay
    • Keep a replay buffer of past generations and occassionally show them
    • Keep checkpoints from the past of G and D and occassionaly swap them out for a few iterations
  • All stability tricks that work for deep deterministic policy gradients
  • See Pfau & Vinyals (2016)

9: Use the ADAM Optimizer

  • optim.Adam rules!
    • See Radford et. al. 2015
  • Use SGD for discriminator and ADAM for generator

10: Track failures early

  • D loss goes to 0: failure mode
  • check norms of gradients: if they are over 100 things are screwing up
  • when things are working, D loss has low variance and goes down over time vs having huge variance and spiking
  • if loss of generator steadily decreases, then it's fooling D with garbage (says martin)

11: Dont balance loss via statistics (unless you have a good reason to)

  • Dont try to find a (number of G / number of D) schedule to uncollapse training
  • It's hard and we've all tried it.
  • If you do try it, have a principled approach to it, rather than intuition

For example

while lossD > A:   train D while lossG > B:   train G 

12: If you have labels, use them

  • if you have labels available, training the discriminator to also classify the samples: auxillary GANs

13: Add noise to inputs, decay over time

14: [notsure] Train discriminator more (sometimes)

  • especially when you have noise
  • hard to find a schedule of number of D iterations vs G iterations

15: [notsure] Batch Discrimination

  • Mixed results

16: Discrete variables in Conditional GANs

  • Use an Embedding layer
  • Add as additional channels to images
  • Keep embedding dimensionality low and upsample to match image channel size

17: Use Dropouts in G in both train and test phase

Authors

  • Soumith Chintala
  • Emily Denton
  • Martin Arjovsky
  • Michael Mathieu
Reference:
https://github.com/soumith/ganhacks#authors



GAN?#27537;涓浜涘皬trick

鏈杩戣缁僄AN閬?#37714;颁簡寰堝?#27692;潙锛孏AN?#27537;璁?#32513;冪殑纭?#37828;?#28051;?#23536;坉t?#27537;闂?#26864;?#38171;屽?#20635;灉鍙?#37828;敤鍒?#27996;虹殑paper璺?#28051;浜涘?#26050;敤杩?#28610;?#38171;屽?#20635;?#28358;嚜?#32321;璁?#29825;℃柊?#27537;缁撴瀯锛屽仛涓浜涙柊?#27537;鐮旂?#21057;殑璇?#38171;屽氨?#28214;瑕佷簡瑙?#26473;?#27996;泃rick?#31777;锛?#38318;?#37828;?#23049;獈

杩?#28051;猟oc soumith/ganhackssoumith/ganhacks 绠鐩存槸GAN姝?#37835;?#37923;岀殑涔濋槾鐪熺粡锛岀湅瀹屼互鍚?#37808;?#29785;?#38007;繁涓婁簡涓涓猯evel銆?/p>

鑷?#23480;卞仛涓?#32471;?#29825;帮細

1銆俷ormalize杈撳叆锛?#29825;?#28729;冨湪[-1,1]銆俫enerater?#27537;杈撳嚭?#25956;tanh锛屼篃鏄痆-1,1]锛?#26473;?#28751;卞搴旇捣鏉ヤ簡銆?/p>

2銆?#29825;?#37826;?#38322;岄潰optimize G鏄痬in log(1 - D)锛?#28003;嗗湪?#30084;闄?#29825;?#32513;冪殑?#26882;鍊欏彲浠ョ敤 max log(D)

3銆?#28725;?#27996;庡櫔澹皕锛屽埆?#25956;鍧囧寑锛坲niform锛?#37714;嗗竷锛岀敤楂?#37826;?#37714;嗗竷銆?/p>

4銆傚彲浠ョ敤instance norm浠?#37831;?batch norm銆?#26473;?#37832;夊氨鏄痳eal鏀?#28051;?#25443;锛実enerated鏀?#28051;?#25443;锛堟劅瑙?#26473;?#28051;?#37828;?#25652;?#29831;漄AQ锛?#37510;?/p>

5銆?#38316;?#37711;嶇█鐤忕殑gradients?#32048;RELU锛孧axpool閭?#27996;?#37510;?#26473;?#28051;鐐规?#25123;涓哄?#29111;洜鏄?#28051;嶅?#24531;?#27699;鯨鍒?#23534;忕殑?#32137;缁?#38171;屽垽鍒?#23534;忕殑锛屽敖鍙?#38003;?#37819;愬彇閲嶈?#20346;殑淇?#37805;?#38171;屽?#36346;疄涓浜涘棰勬祴褰?#37725;?#28051;嶅ぇ?#27537;淇?#37805;?#38318;?#29722;?#36423;界暐鎺変簡銆?#28003;?#37828;疓AN涓?#37722;?#38171;屾槸鐢熸垚寮忕殑妯″瀷锛屾墍浠?#29781;?#28751;?#37721;?#38003;界殑琛?#37916;板嚭缁嗚妭鏂归潰?#27537;鍐?#28729;?#38171;屾墍浠?#38316;?#37711;?#28003;跨敤绋鐤忕殑杩?#27996;?#38171;?/p>

  • LeakyRelu
  • For Downsampling, use: Average Pooling, Conv2d + stride
  • For Upsampling, use: PixelShuffle, ConvTranspose2d + stride

6銆傚彲浠ユ妸label涓??#27537;锛坮eal锛夊彉鍒?.7~1.2锛宭abel涓??#27537;鍙?#37714;?~0.3銆?#26473;?#28051;?#37721;?#28000;?#23075;卞叆鎯虫兂銆?/p>

7銆?#38003;界敤DCGAN灏辩敤锛岀敤涓嶄簡?#27537;璇濈敤娣?#37722;堟ā?#28727;锛孠L+GAN锛孷AE+GAN涔嬬?#33636;殑銆?/p>

8銆傚熺敤RL璁?#32513;?#37814;宸?#37510;?/p>

  • Keep a replay buffer of past generations and occassionally show them
  • Keep checkpoints from the past of G and D and occassionaly swap them out for a few iterations

9銆傜敤ADAM锛佹垨鑰?#37828;疍鍙?#28000;ョ敤SGD锛孏?#25956;ADAM

10銆傛敞?#21104;璁?#32513;?#26473;囩▼锛屽?#33445;棭?#24386;?#24135;璁?#32513;?#28598;辫触锛?#28051;嶈嚦浜?#29825;?#32513;?#28610;?#38336;挎椂闂?#37832;鍚?#37813;嶅彂?#24135;锛屾氮璐规椂闂?#37510;?/p>

11銆?#37832;濂?#37714;?#28751;?#29831;?#29825;剧疆涓浜涘父閲忓幓balance G涓嶥?#27537;璁?#32513;?#26473;囩▼銆?#38171;?#28000;?#28000;?#29831;?#26473;?#28051;獁ork寰堥毦?#20187;銆傛?#25123;?#22794;緱鏈夋椂闂寸殑璇?#37711;跺疄杩?#37828;?#37721;?#28000;?#29831;?#28051;涓嬬殑銆?#38171;?/p>

12銆傚?#20635;灉浣?#28725;箁eal鏈夌浉搴旂殑label锛岀敤label锛孉C-GAN銆?#37716;犲叆label淇?#37805;?#38171;屽彲浠?#38340;?#28003;?#37922;熸垚?#27537;?#27622;搴?#38171;?#26473;?#28051;?#25652;旇鍙?#28000;?#37807;崇殑閫?#37510;?/p>

13銆?#37716;犲櫔澹?#38171;?#28003;滅敤鏄痠mprove鐢熸垚鍐?#28729;瑰緱diversity?

  • Add some artificial noise to inputs to D (Arjovsky et. al., Huszar, 2016)
  • adding gaussian noise to every layer of generator (Zhao et. al. EBGAN)

14銆?#37510;恘ot sure銆?#28598;氳缁僁锛岀壒鍒?#37828;?#37716;犲櫔澹扮殑?#26882;鍊?#37510;?/p>

15銆?#37510;恘ot sure銆慴atch D锛屾劅瑙夎?#23676;技鏄?#37724;宲ix2pix涓殑patchGAN鏈?#37904;?#37709;?#38171;?/p>

16銆侰GAN锛屾垜涓鐩磋?#22794;緱CGAN杩欑?#23942;墠绗?#37722;?#27996;虹被瀛?#28052;犵殑鎬?#29882;?#37510;傚?#29111;?#23340;殑GAN灏卞お绮楁?#32736;簡锛屽氨濂藉儚浠涔堥兘涓嶇煡閬?#38171;岀劧鍚?#28051;?#28051;?#27996;篋涓嶨璁?#29825;?#27996;ゆ祦瀵规姉锛屼骇鐢熺殑閮?#37828;?#28051;浜涘?#23940;?#28888;病鏈夊仛杩囩殑宸?#28003;?#38171;屽紑绡囩殑宸?#28003;?#38171;屾墍浠?#23011;旇緝鍥伴毦涓浜?#38171;?#28003;?#37828;疌GAN?#27537;璇?#28751;?#37832;変簡涓瀹氱殑鍓嶆彁锛屼?#29111;氨鏄?#37814;?#28275;绉?#32497;?#38171;屾墍浠?#23011;旇緝绠鍗?#28051;浜?#37510;?#37832;?#37904;?#32491;?#28028;?#32457;?#37934;?#28051;殑澶?#37911;涙?#26663;潙锛屽紑杈熸柊鏂?#37722;?#38171;圙AN锛?#37510;傚?#24533;?#28056;~鍧?#38171;圕GAN锛?#37510;?/p>

17銆傚湪G涓殑鍑犲眰涓敤dropout锛?0%锛?#37510;?#26473;?#28051;?#37832;?#28051;绡?#29825;?#37826;?#38171;?#26473;樻病?#28229;銆?/p>

璇诲畬杩?#27996;涙劅瑙?#38007;繁鎯?#29781;?#29825;?#29825;AN?#27537;璇?#38171;屽?#26055;鏈?#28051;郴缁熺殑璁?#29831;嗕簡锛?#28051;嶄細瑙夊緱鑷繁濂藉儚鏈?#37725;?#27996;?#38322;嶈?#20346;殑鍦?#37826;?#26473;?#28051;嶇煡閬?#38171;屽緢涓嶈?#24531;疄鎰?#29785;?#37510;?#26473;欑?#23942;劅瑙?#28725;规垜杩欑?#23941;己杩?#22249;殑鎰?#29785;夊緢涓嶇?#34249;晩锛?#38171;佺湅瀹屼互鍚?#26916;挎椂鑸?#37832;嶄簡寰堝~~~

https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/27725664

]]>logitshttp://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/03/27/216316.html鏉板摜鏉板摜Tue, 26 Mar 2019 21:01:00 GMThttp://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/03/27/216316.htmlhttp://www.kffa.tw/guijie/comments/216316.htmlhttp://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/03/27/216316.html#Feedback0http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/comments/commentRss/216316.htmlhttp://www.kffa.tw/guijie/services/trackbacks/216316.htmlWhat is the meaning of the word logits in TensorFlow?


]]>*.md (markdown)http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/03/20/216303.html鏉板摜鏉板摜Tue, 19 Mar 2019 19:08:00 GMThttp://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/03/20/216303.htmlhttp://www.kffa.tw/guijie/comments/216303.htmlhttp://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/03/20/216303.html#Feedback0http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/comments/commentRss/216303.htmlhttp://www.kffa.tw/guijie/services/trackbacks/216303.htmlFor https://github.com/scutan90/DeepLearning-500-questions/blob/master/ch07_%E7%94%9F%E6%88%90%E5%AF%B9%E6%8A%97%E7%BD%91%E7%BB%9C(GAN)/%E7%AC%AC%E4
%B8%83%E7%AB%A0_%E7%94%9F%E6%88%90%E5%AF%B9%E6%8A%97%E7%BD%91%E7%BB%9C(GAN).md, the formula doesn't show well. I asked Zhengxia, he says that markdown doesn't support formula very well. As he knows markdown doesn't support the in-line formula. He uses markdown, but he doesn't use formula in it. If you have to use formula, you can use latex. If we use Typora, at the lower left corner, select "鍚敤?#31790;浠?#37934;佹ā寮?. Change 


]]>google scholar锛屾?#28052;堝幓鎺?#38007;紩锛?/title><link>http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/03/17/216300.html</link><dc:creator>鏉板摜</dc:creator><author>鏉板摜</author><pubDate>Sun, 17 Mar 2019 15:24:00 GMT</pubDate><guid>http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/03/17/216300.html</guid><wfw:comment>http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/comments/216300.html</wfw:comment><comments>http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/03/17/216300.html#Feedback</comments><slash:comments>0</slash:comments><wfw:commentRss>http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/comments/commentRss/216300.html</wfw:commentRss><trackback:ping>http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/services/trackbacks/216300.html</trackback:ping><description><![CDATA[<span style="font-family: Geneva, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;">google scholar, 鐐?#26473;沺aper锛宑ited by?#27537;number => 鍕?#28051;妔earch within citing </span><span style="font-family: Geneva, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;">articles, search box閲岃?#25779;叆 -author:"your name" <br /></span>Reference: http://www.unknownspace.org/article_t/Immigration/33820191.html<img src ="http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/aggbug/216300.html" width = "1" height = "1" /><br><br><div align=right><a style="text-decoration:none;" href="http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/" target="_blank">鏉板摜</a> 2019-03-17 23:24 <a href="http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/03/17/216300.html#Feedback" target="_blank" style="text-decoration:none;">鍙戣〃璇?#29825;?/a></div>]]></description></item><item><title>[zz] 3 涓浉瑙?#37805;?#37829;氱殑 Google Colaboratory 濂囨妧http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/02/13/216240.html鏉板摜鏉板摜Wed, 13 Feb 2019 15:56:00 GMThttp://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/02/13/216240.htmlhttp://www.kffa.tw/guijie/comments/216240.htmlhttp://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/02/13/216240.html#Feedback0http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/comments/commentRss/216240.htmlhttp://www.kffa.tw/guijie/services/trackbacks/216240.html鍘?#37826;囧嚭澶勶細

https://www.kdnuggets.com/2018/02/essential-google-colaboratory-tips-tricks.html


璇曟兂涓涓?#38171;屽?#20635;灉鏈?#28051;?#37711;嶈垂?#27537;?#28266;?#22158;浜戠骞冲彴锛屾棦鍙?#28000;?#28051;嶇敤?#30056;瑁?TensorFlow 鐩存帴浣跨敤锛屽?#22557;彲浠ュ疄?#24135; GPU 鍔犻?#29825;?#32513;?#38171;岄偅璇?#37828;?#28598;氬?#30028;殑涓浠朵?#23339;儏銆?#28003;犳病鍚敊锛?#26473;欑濂?#27996;嬬‘?#30084;瀛樺湪锛?#28000;?#28598;?#37812;?#28751;?#38322;嶇浠?#32513;?#28051;涓?#29835;锋瓕鎺ㄥ嚭?#27537;鍏嶈垂?#27537;浜戠宸?#37711;凤細Colaboratory銆?/span>


Colaboratory 鏄?#28051;涓?Google 鐮旂┒椤?#37929;?#38171;屾棬?#28266;甯?#37716;?#28028;犳挱鏈哄櫒瀛?#28052;?#37737;?#29825;?#37724;岀?#26050;┒鎴愭灉銆?/span>瀹?#37828;?#28051;涓?Jupyter 绗?#29825;?#37832;幆澧?/span>锛?#28051;嶉渶瑕?#26473;?#29723;屼换浣?#29825;剧疆灏卞彲浠?#28003;跨敤锛屽苟涓?#28729;屽叏?#28266;浜戠杩?#29723;?#37510;侰olaboratory 绗?#29825;?#37832;?#28699;樺偍?#28266; Google 浜戠纭?#37929;?#28051;?#38171;屽苟涓?#37721;?#28000;?#37711;?#27996;?#38171;屽?#21342;鍚屾偍浣跨敤 Google 鏂囨。鎴?#29723;ㄦ牸涓鏍?#37510;侰olaboratory 鍙?#37711;嶈垂浣跨敤銆?/span>


涔熷氨鏄?#29831;?#38171;孋olaboratory 瀛樺偍?#28266; Google 浜戠纭?#37929;?#28051;?#38171;屾垜浠?#37721;?#28000;ュ湪 Google 浜戠纭?#37929;?#38322;岀?#23384;帴缂?#37712;?Jupyter Notebook锛屽湪?#22158;浣跨敤娣卞害瀛?#28052;犳鏋?TensorFlow 骞?#29825;?#32513;?#37812;?#28000;殑绁?#32513;忕綉缁滀簡銆傝秴鐐?#38171;?/span>



杩?#38322;?#37832;?3 涓?#28000;?#27996;虹浉瑙?#37805;?#37829;氱殑濂囨妧娣?#23480;?#37833;?#32480;鍖栧?#20906;殑浣跨敤锛屽垎鍒?#37828;細浣跨敤鍏嶈垂?#27537; GPU銆佸畨瑁?#25652;?#37510;?#28051;?#28028;?#39582;?#28003;跨敤?#26271;?#23873;鏂囦欢銆?/span>


涓嬮潰鍒?#37714;?#28000;?#32513;嶏細


1. 浣跨敤鍏嶈垂?#27537; GPU


?#28266;鎵?#23534;?#27537; Jupyter Notebook 涓?#38171;岄夋嫨鑿?#37719;曟爮“浠?#37934;?#37813;?#29723;岀▼搴?#38171;圧untime锛?/strong>”锛?#8220;鏇存敼杩?#29723;岀?#35826;瀷锛圕hange runtime type锛?/strong>”锛?#26473;欐椂灏嗙湅鍒?#28000;?#28051;?#23534;瑰嚭绐楀彛?#32048;

纭?#28103;?#8220;纭?#28000;?#37716;犻熷櫒锛圚ardware accelerator锛?#8221;璁剧疆涓?GPU锛堥粯璁?#28051;?CPU锛?#37510;?span style="color: #444444; font-family: "Microsoft Yahei", "Helvetica Neue", Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; background-color: #ffffff;">璁剧疆瀹屾瘯鍚?#37904;?#37713;讳繚瀛?#37510;?/span>


鍊煎緱?#25950;?#21104;?#27537;鏄?#32429;?#29825;?#32471;?#29825;?#37832;?#28598;?#27996;?strong>?#20961;杩?#37818;?/strong>?#27537;?#23032;鎬侊細



妫?#29025;鏄?#37722;?#37930;熺殑寮鍚簡 GPU锛?#37719;?#35120;?#37715;?#26473;?#37818;?#37714;颁簡GPU?#30084;渚?#38171;夛?#23677;彲浠?#37929;存帴?#28266; Jupyter Notebook 涓?#26473;?#29723;屼互涓嬪懡浠?/span>?#32048;


import tensorflow as tf
device_name = tf.test.gpu_device_name()
if device_name != '/device:GPU:0':
 raise SystemError('GPU device not found')
print('Found GPU at: {}'.format(device_name))

 

鑻?#26440;撳嚭浠?#28051;?#29831;?#37721;?#38171;屽垯琛?#37828;庡凡缁?#28003;跨敤?#31777; GPU ?#30084;渚?#37510;?/span>


Found GPU at: /device:GPU:0


浣?#37828;?#38171;岀敱浜庡湪?#22158; GPU 璧勬簮鏈?#38340;?#38171;?#37832;夋椂鍊欏彲鑳?#28028;氬嚭?#24135;涓嬮潰?#27537;闂?#26864;?#37819;?#32448;猴細



 

灏?#26473;?#37837;?#38171;?#29835;锋瓕鍏?#29825;?#28003;?#28051;娆?#37832;澶氭寔缁?#28003;跨敤 12 灏忔椂?#27537;鍏嶈垂 GPU銆?/span>


2. ?#30056;瑁?#25652;?/span>


鐩?#37715;?#38171;屽湪 Google Colaboratory 涓畨瑁呯殑?#33931;浠?#39582;?#28051;?#37828;?#37816;?#28052;呯殑锛屾剰鍛崇潃姣?#23046;?#38322;嶆柊杩?#37818;ュ疄渚嬫椂閮介渶瑕?#38322;?#37826;板畨瑁?#37510;?#28003;?#37828;?#38171;孋olab ?#20961;缁忛粯璁ゅ畨瑁呬簡?#28214;瑕?#37832;夌敤?#27537;搴?#38171;屽畨瑁呮柊?#27537;搴?#28052;?#39582;?#38344;為毦浜?#38171;?#37826;?#23049;?#28052;?#37832;?#28610;藉嚑绉?#37510;?/span>


浣嗛渶瑕佹敞?#21104;?#27537;鏄?#38171;屽畨瑁?#28000;?#28003;曢渶瑕?#28000;庢簮浠?#37934;佹?#21227;?#34425;殑?#33931;浠?#37721;?#38003;介渶瑕?#23536;堥?#36328;殑?#26882;闂?#37510;?/span>


Colab 鍚屾椂鏀?#37816;?pip 鍜?apt 鍖?#32480;?#37918;嗗櫒銆傛棤璁烘偍浣跨敤?#27537;鏄?#37725;?#28051;涓?#38171;?#29825;?#28003;忚?#20344;湪鍛?#28000;?#37715;嶉潰鍔?#28051;?#32471;?#37721;?“!”銆?/span>


# Install Keras with pip
!pip install -q keras
import keras

>
>> Using TensorFlow backend.

#
Install GraphViz with apt
!apt-get install graphviz -y



3. 涓?#28028;?#39582;?#28003;跨敤?#26271;?#23873;鏂囦欢


鎴?#28000;?#28051;鑸?#38318;介渶瑕佸湪 Colab 绗?#29825;?#37832;?#28051;?#28003;跨敤?#26271;?#23873;锛?#28725;?#37722;?#38171;?#28003;?#37721;?#28000;?#28003;跨敤 wget 涔嬬?#33636;殑宸?#37711;?#28000;庣綉缁?#28051;婅幏鍙栨暟?#23873;锛?strong>浣?#37828;?#28641;傛灉浣?#37832;?#28051;浜涙湰鍦?#37826;囦欢锛屾兂涓?#28028;?#37714;?#28003;犵殑璋锋瓕纭?#37929;?#28051;殑 Colab ?#24134;澧?#38322;屽苟浣跨敤瀹冧滑锛岃鎬?#28052;堝?#27692;憿锛?/span>


寰?#32480;鍗?#38171;屽彧?#28214; 3 姝?#37719;冲彲?#30084;?#24135;锛?/span>


棣?#37711;?#28003;跨敤浠?#28051;嬪懡浠?#29835;冪敤绗?#29825;?#37832;?#28051;殑鏂囦欢閫夋嫨鍣細


from google.colab import files
uploaded = files.upload()


杩?#29723;屼箣鍚?#38171;屾垜浠?#28751;?#28028;氬彂?#24135;鍗曞厓 cell 涓嬪嚭?#24135;?#31777;“閫夋嫨鏂囦欢”鎸夐挳?#32048;



杩?#37837;?#28751;卞彲浠?#37929;存帴閫夋嫨浣犳兂涓?#28028;犵殑鏂囦?#36346;暒锛?/span>


閫夋嫨鏂囦欢鍚?#38171;?#28003;跨敤浠?#28051;?#26473;?#28000;?#37826;?#23049;?#28051;?#28028;?#37826;囦欢浠ユ煡鎵?#37711;堕敭鍚?#38171;屽懡浠?#28641;?#28051;嬶細


for fn in uploaded.keys():
 print('User uploaded file "{name}" with length {length} bytes'.format(name=fn, length=len(uploaded[fn])))


渚?#28641;傚緟涓?#28028;犵殑鏄?iris.csv 鏂囦欢锛岃嫢杩?#29723;屾病鏈?#38338;?#26864;樼殑璇?#38171;屽?#26055;?#22189;鐜扮被浼?#28051;嬮潰?#27537;鎻?#32448;鸿鍙ワ細


User uploaded file "iris.csv" with length 3716 bytes


鏈鍚?#38171;屽氨浣跨敤浠?#28051;嬪懡浠?#28751;?#37826;囦欢?#27537;鍐?#28729;?#37716;?#26462;?#37714;?Pandas ?#27537; DataFrame 涓簡?#32048;


import pandas as pd
import io
df = pd.read_csv(io.StringIO(uploaded['iris.csv'].decode('utf-8')))
print(df)


杩欑涓?#28028;?#37826;囦欢?#27537;鏂?#23049;?#37828;?#28051;?#37828;?#23536;?#32480;鍗?#37723;?#38171;?#35120;?#37906;?#38171;?#28051;?#28028;?#37724;?#28003;跨敤?#26271;?#23873;鏂囦欢杩?#37832;夊?#36346;?#20906;殑鏂?#23049;?#38171;?#28003;?#37828;?#37812;戝彂?#24135;杩?#28051;鏂?#23049;?#37832;绠鍗?#37828;庝簡銆?/span>


浠?#28051;?#28751;?#37828;?#37711;?#27996;?Google Calaboratory ?#27537; 3 涓?#38344;?#29999;稿疄?#25956;?#27537;鎶宸?#38171;岃刀绱?#28751;?#29831;?#28051;涓?#37722;?#38171;?/span>


鏈鍚?#38171;屽彲鑳?#37832;夌殑璇昏?#37832;嬪弸瀵?nbsp;Google Calaboratory 涓嶅お?#31777;瑙g殑锛屽彲浠ユ煡?#28229;鎴?#28052;?#37715;嶅?#27409;殑涓绡囨枃?#29687;?#32048;濡?#28003;曞湪鍏嶈垂浜戠杩?#29723;?Python 娣卞害瀛?#28052;犳鏋?#38171;?/strong>閾?#37818;?#28641;?#28051;嬶細


https://redstonewill.com/1493/


涔熷彲浠?#37904;?#37713;?strong>闃?#29831;?#37720;?#37826;?/strong>?#29025;?#28229;锛?/span>


Reference:
https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/vLnBFPZNvIjs4R7d4_6M_g


]]>[zz]Python涓?#28051;?#37714;掔嚎?#27537;5绉?#37722;?#28052;?/title><link>http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/02/02/216230.html</link><dc:creator>鏉板摜</dc:creator><author>鏉板摜</author><pubDate>Fri, 01 Feb 2019 17:51:00 GMT</pubDate><guid>http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/02/02/216230.html</guid><wfw:comment>http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/comments/216230.html</wfw:comment><comments>http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/02/02/216230.html#Feedback</comments><slash:comments>0</slash:comments><wfw:commentRss>http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/comments/commentRss/216230.html</wfw:commentRss><trackback:ping>http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/services/trackbacks/216230.html</trackback:ping><description><![CDATA[<div><div style="overflow: hidden; width: 690px; margin: 0px auto; color: #1a1a1a; font-family: -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Microsoft YaHei", "Source Han Sans SC", "Noto Sans CJK SC", "WenQuanYi Micro Hei", sans-serif; font-size: medium; background-color: #ffffff;"><div ztext="" post-richtext"="" style="word-break: break-word; line-height: 1.6; margin-top: 20px;"><p style="margin: 0px 0px 1.4em;">鍒?#27996;?#28051;绡囨枃?#29687;?#32048;<a href="http://link.zhihu.com/?target=https%3A//dbader.org/blog/meaning-of-underscores-in-python" wrap="" external"="" target="_blank" rel="nofollow noreferrer" data-za-detail-view-id="1043" style="text-decoration-line: none; cursor: pointer; border-bottom: 1px solid #808080;">The Meaning of Underscores in Python</a>銆?/p><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">鏈?#37826;囦粙缁嶄簡Python涓?#37719;?#28051;?#37714;掔嚎鍜屽弻涓?#37714;掔嚎锛?dunder"锛夌殑鍚?#32457;?#37722;?#28052;?#37724;屽懡鍚嶇害瀹?#38171;?#37722;嶇О淇?#26967;?#38171;坣ame mangling锛夌殑宸?#28003;?#37720;熺悊锛屼互鍙婂畠濡?#28003;?#35120;?#37725;?#28003;?#38007;繁?#27537;Python绫?#37510;?/p><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">鍗?#28051;?#37714;掔嚎鍜屽弻涓?#37714;掔嚎?#28266;Python鍙?#38322;?#37724;?#37826;?#23049;?#37722;嶇О涓?#38318;?#37722;?#37832;夊叾鍚?#28052;?#37510;?#37832;?#28051;浜?#37722;?#28052;?#28000;?#28000;?#37828;?#28186;濈収?#23475;瀹?#38171;?#29722;?#29785;?#28003;?#37828;?#28725;圭▼搴?#37723;樼殑鎻?#32448;?- 鑰?#37832;?#28051;浜?#37722;?#28052;?#37828;?#37922;盤ython瑙?#38322;婂櫒涓ユ牸鎵?#29723;岀殑銆?/p><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">濡傛灉浣犳?#23815;煡閬?#8220;Python鍙?#38322;?#37724;?#37826;?#23049;?#37722;嶇О涓?#37719;?#28051;?#37714;掔嚎鍜屽弻涓?#37714;掔嚎?#27537;鍚?#28052;?#37828;?#28000;涔?#38171;?#8221;锛屾垜浼氬?#33445;垜鎵鑳藉湪杩?#38322;?#28051;?#28003;?#29785;?#32475;?#37510;?/p><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">?#28266;鏈?#37826;?#28051;?#38171;屾垜灏?#29825;?#29825;?#28000;?#28051;嬩?#26050;涓?#37714;掔嚎妯?#23534;?#37724;屽懡鍚嶇害瀹?#38171;屼互鍙婂?#20903;滑濡?#28003;?#35120;?#37725;峆ython绋?#25652;忕殑琛?#28051;猴細</p><ul style="padding: 0px; margin: 1.4em 0px; display: table;"><li style="list-style: none; display: table-row;">鍗?#37715;嶅涓?#37714;?#32510;匡細_var</li><li style="list-style: none; display: table-row;">鍗?#37832;?#28751;?#28051;?#37714;?#32510;匡細var_</li><li style="list-style: none; display: table-row;">鍙?#37715;嶅涓?#37714;?#32510;匡細__var</li><li style="list-style: none; display: table-row;">鍙?#37715;嶅鍜?#37832;?#28751;?#28051;?#37714;?#32510;匡細__var__</li><li style="list-style: none; display: table-row;">鍗?#28051;?#37714;?#32510;匡細_</li></ul><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">?#28266;鏂囩珷缁?#28751;?#28598;?#38171;?#28003;?#37721;?#28000;?#37813;?#37714;?#28051;涓?#32480;鐭殑“閫熸煡琛?#8221;锛屾?#32513;撲簡浜旂涓?#37722;岀殑涓?#37714;掔嚎鍛?#37722;嶇害瀹氬強鍏?#37722;?#28052;夛?#23676;互鍙?#28051;涓?#32480;鐭殑瑙?#26864;?#37825;欑▼锛屽彲璁?#28003;犱?#33590;韩浣撻?#23677;?#20903;滑?#27537;琛?#28051;?#37510;?/p><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">璁?#37812;?#28000;┈涓?#23534;濮?#38171;?/p><h2>1. 鍗?#37715;嶅涓?#37714;掔嚎 _var</h2><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">褰撴?#22794;強鍒板彉閲?#37724;?#37826;?#23049;?#37722;嶇?#29256;椂锛?#37719;?#28051;?#28051;?#37714;掔嚎鍓嶇紑鏈?#28051;涓害瀹?#28103;楁垚?#27537;鍚?#28052;?#37510;?瀹?#37828;?#28725;圭▼搴?#37723;樼殑涓涓?#37819;?#32448;?- ?#21104;鍛崇潃Python绀?#37718;?#28051;鑷?#29825;?#28051;哄畠搴旇鏄?#28000;涔堟剰鎬?#38171;?#28003;?#32459;?#25652;忕殑琛?#28051;?#28051;嶅彈褰?#37725;?#37510;?/p><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">涓?#37714;掔嚎鍓嶇紑?#27537;鍚?#28052;?#37828;?#37723;婄煡鍏?#28000;栫▼搴?#37723;橈細浠?#37719;?#28051;?#28051;?#37714;掔嚎寮澶寸殑鍙?#38322;?#37812;?#37826;?#23049;?#28000;呬?#28056;唴閮?#28003;跨敤銆?璇ョ害瀹氬湪PEP 8涓?#37832;夊畾涔?#37510;?/p><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">杩?#28051;?#37828;疨ython寮哄埗瑙勫?#27697;殑銆?Python涓嶅儚Java閭?#37837;峰湪“绉?#37832;?#8221;鍜?#8220;?#21461;鍏?#8221;鍙?#38322;?#28052;?#38338;?#37832;夊?#22557;?#34425;殑鍖哄埆銆?杩?#28751;卞儚鏈変?#28888;?#24876;嚭?#31777;涓涓?#28751;?#28751;忕殑涓?#37714;掔嚎璀?#37723;婃?#22247;織锛岃?#36798;細</p><blockquote style="margin: 1.4em 0px; padding-left: 1em; color: #646464; border-left-width: 3px; border-left-color: #d3d3d3;">“鍢?#38171;?#26473;?#28051;?#37828;?#37930;熺殑瑕佹垚涓虹?#33636;殑?#21461;鍏?#37818;?#37721;g殑涓閮?#37714;?#37510;?#28051;嶅幓绠?#28729;?#28751;?#28610;?#37510;?#8220;</blockquote><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">?#28229;?#28229;涓嬮潰?#27537;渚?#28699;愶細</p><div style="margin: 1em 0px;"><pre style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: calc(0.888889em); font-size: 0.9em; word-break: initial; overflow-wrap: initial; overflow: auto; background: #f6f6f6; border-radius: 4px;"><code style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-radius: 0px; font-family: Menlo, Monaco, Consolas, "Andale Mono", "lucida console", "Courier New", monospace; font-size: inherit; background-color: inherit;">class Test: def __init__(self): self.foo = 11 self._bar = 23 </code></pre></div><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">濡傛灉浣犲疄渚?#37718;?#23005;?#32491;?#38171;屽苟灏?#29831;?#29825;?#38338;湪__init__鏋勯?#37713;芥暟涓?#28729;?#28052;夌殑foo鍜宊bar灞?#37804;?#38171;屼?#27692;彂鐢?#28000;涔堟儏鍐?#38171;?璁?#37812;?#28000;?#37833;ョ湅?#28229;?#32048;</p><div style="margin: 1em 0px;"><pre style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: calc(0.888889em); font-size: 0.9em; word-break: initial; overflow-wrap: initial; overflow: auto; background: #f6f6f6; border-radius: 4px;"><code style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-radius: 0px; font-family: Menlo, Monaco, Consolas, "Andale Mono", "lucida console", "Courier New", monospace; font-size: inherit; background-color: inherit;">>>> t = Test() >>> t.foo 11 >>> t._bar 23 </code></pre></div><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">浣犱細?#28229;鍒癬bar涓殑鍗?#28051;?#28051;?#37714;掔嚎骞?#23052;?#37832;夐樆姝?#37812;?#28000;?#8220;杩涘叆”绫?#39582;?#29825;?#38338;?#29831;?#37721;?#38322;忕殑鍊?#37510;?/p><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">杩?#37828;?#37733;?#28051;篜ython涓殑鍗?#28051;?#28051;?#37714;掔嚎鍓嶇紑浠?#28000;?#37828;?#28051;涓害瀹?- 鑷?#28751;戠浉瀵?#27996;?#37721;?#38322;?#37724;?#37826;?#23049;?#37722;?#38000;岃█銆?/p><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">浣?#37828;?#38171;?#37715;嶅涓?#37714;掔嚎?#27537;纭?#28028;氬奖鍝?#28000;庢ā鍧?#28051;?#28725;煎叆鍚嶇?#25198;殑鏂?#23534;?#37510;?/p><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">鍋?#29825;?#28003;犲湪涓涓?#37722;?#28051;簃y_module?#27537;妯?#37735;?#28051;?#37832;?#28000;?#28051;嬩唬鐮侊細</p><div style="margin: 1em 0px;"><pre style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: calc(0.888889em); font-size: 0.9em; word-break: initial; overflow-wrap: initial; overflow: auto; background: #f6f6f6; border-radius: 4px;"><code style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-radius: 0px; font-family: Menlo, Monaco, Consolas, "Andale Mono", "lucida console", "Courier New", monospace; font-size: inherit; background-color: inherit;"># This is my_module.py: def external_func(): return 23 def _internal_func(): return 42 </code></pre></div><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">鐜板湪锛屽?#20635;灉浣跨敤閫氶厤绗?#28000;庢ā鍧?#28051;?#28725;煎叆鎵鏈?#37722;嶇О锛屽垯Python涓?#28028;氬?#29006;叆甯?#37832;?#37715;嶅涓?#37714;掔嚎?#27537;鍚嶇О锛堥櫎闈?#22959;?#37735;楀畾涔変簡瑕?#37929;?#23005;?#29723;?#28051;虹殑__all__鍒?#29723;?#38171;夛細</p><div style="margin: 1em 0px;"><pre style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: calc(0.888889em); font-size: 0.9em; word-break: initial; overflow-wrap: initial; overflow: auto; background: #f6f6f6; border-radius: 4px;"><code style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-radius: 0px; font-family: Menlo, Monaco, Consolas, "Andale Mono", "lucida console", "Courier New", monospace; font-size: inherit; background-color: inherit;">>>> from my_module import * >>> external_func() 23 >>> _internal_func() NameError: "name '_internal_func' is not defined" </code></pre></div><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">椤轰究璇?#28051;涓?#38171;屽?#26055;閬?#37711;嶉氶厤绗?#28725;煎叆锛屽洜涓哄?#20903;滑浣?#37722;嶇?#25198;┖闂?#28051;?#28699;樺湪鍝?#27996;?#37722;嶇О涓嶆?#21614;銆?涓轰簡娓呮?#27699;捣瑙?#38171;屽?#27693;寔甯?#29785;?#28725;煎叆?#27967;濂?#37510;?br /></p><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">涓?#38315;氶厤绗?#28725;煎叆涓?#37722;?#38171;屽父瑙?#28725;煎叆涓嶅彈鍓嶅鍗?#28051;?#28051;?#37714;掔嚎鍛?#37722;嶇害瀹氱殑褰?#37725;嶏細</p><div style="margin: 1em 0px;"><pre style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: calc(0.888889em); font-size: 0.9em; word-break: initial; overflow-wrap: initial; overflow: auto; background: #f6f6f6; border-radius: 4px;"><code style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-radius: 0px; font-family: Menlo, Monaco, Consolas, "Andale Mono", "lucida console", "Courier New", monospace; font-size: inherit; background-color: inherit;">>>> import my_module >>> my_module.external_func() 23 >>> my_module._internal_func() 42 </code></pre></div><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">鎴戠煡閬?#26473;?#28051;鐐?#37721;?#38003;?#37832;?#37904;?#28000;?#27996;哄?#29256;儜銆?濡傛灉浣犻伒寰狿EP 8鎺ㄨ崘锛岄伩鍏嶉氶厤绗?#28725;煎叆锛岄偅涔?#28003;犵湡姝i渶瑕?#29825;?#28003;忕殑鍙?#37832;?#26473;?#28051;細</p><blockquote style="margin: 1.4em 0px; padding-left: 1em; color: #646464; border-left-width: 3px; border-left-color: #d3d3d3;">鍗?#28051;?#28051;?#37714;掔嚎鏄?#28051;涓狿ython鍛?#37722;嶇害瀹?#38171;?#29723;?#32448;?#26473;?#28051;?#37722;嶇О鏄?#28186;涘唴閮?#28003;跨敤?#27537;銆?瀹冮氬父涓?#37922;盤ython瑙?#38322;婂櫒寮哄埗鎵?#29723;?#38171;屼粎浠?#28003;?#28051;?#28051;绉嶅?#22317;▼搴?#37723;樼殑鎻?#32448;?#37510;?/blockquote><h2>2. 鍗?#37832;?#28751;?#28051;?#37714;掔嚎 var_</h2><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">鏈夋椂鍊?#38171;?#28051;涓?#37721;?#38322;忕殑鏈鍚堥傜殑鍚嶇?#26495;凡缁?#29722;?#28051;涓?#37711;?#38335;?#28699;楁墍鍗犵敤銆?鍥?#23005;?#38171;屽儚class鎴杁ef杩?#37837;风殑鍚嶇О涓?#38003;界敤浣淧ython涓殑鍙?#38322;?#37722;嶇О銆??#28266;杩欑?#23942;儏鍐?#28051;?#38171;?#28003;?#37721;?#28000;?#38340;?#37716;?#28051;涓?#28051;?#37714;掔嚎鏉?#29785;?#37712;冲懡鍚嶅啿绐侊細</p><div style="margin: 1em 0px;"><pre style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: calc(0.888889em); font-size: 0.9em; word-break: initial; overflow-wrap: initial; overflow: auto; background: #f6f6f6; border-radius: 4px;"><code style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-radius: 0px; font-family: Menlo, Monaco, Consolas, "Andale Mono", "lucida console", "Courier New", monospace; font-size: inherit; background-color: inherit;">>>> def make_object(name, class): SyntaxError: "invalid syntax" >>> def make_object(name, class_): ... pass </code></pre></div><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">鎬?#28052;?#38171;?#37719;?#28051;?#37832;?#28751;?#28051;?#37714;掔嚎锛堝?#24227;紑锛?#37828;?#28051;涓害瀹?#38171;岀敤鏉?#38316;?#37711;?#28051;嶱ython鍏?#38335;?#28699;?#27996;?#37922;熷懡鍚嶅啿绐?#37510;?PEP 8瑙?#38322;婁簡杩?#28051;害瀹?#37510;?/p><h2>3. 鍙?#37715;嶅涓?#37714;掔嚎 __var</h2><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">鍒扮洰鍓?#28051;?#23005;?#38171;屾垜浠?#37813;娑夊?#23108;殑鎵鏈夊懡鍚嶆ā寮忕殑鍚?#28052;夛紝鏉?#38007;?#27996;庡凡杈炬垚鍏辫瘑?#27537;?#23475;瀹?#37510;?鑰?#28725;?#27996;?#28000;?#37721;?#28051;?#37714;掔嚎寮澶寸殑Python绫荤殑灞?#37804;?#38171;堝?#21614;嫭鍙?#38322;?#37724;?#37826;?#23049;?#38171;夛紝鎯?#37712;?#28751;?#37832;?#37904;?#28051;?#37722;屼簡銆?/p><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">鍙?#28051;?#37714;掔嚎鍓嶇紑浼氬?#33392;?#30882;ython瑙?#38322;婂櫒閲嶅?#27407;睘鎬?#37722;嶇О锛屼互閬?#37711;?#28699;?#32491;?#28051;殑鍛?#37722;嶅啿绐?#37510;?/p><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">杩?#28052;熷彨鍋氬悕绉?#28103;?#26967;?#38171;坣ame mangling锛?- 瑙?#38322;婂櫒鏇存敼鍙?#38322;忕殑鍚嶇О锛屼互渚垮湪绫?#29722;?#37813;?#28766;曠殑?#26882;鍊?#28051;嶅鏄?#27996;?#37922;熷啿绐?#37510;?/p><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">鎴戠煡閬?#26473;?#37722;捣鏉?#23536;堟?#20511;薄銆?鍥?#23005;?#38171;屾垜缁?#37722;堜簡涓涓?#28751;?#28751;忕殑浠?#37934;?#32448;轰緥鏉?#27996;?#28000;?#29831;存槑?#32048;</p><div style="margin: 1em 0px;"><pre style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: calc(0.888889em); font-size: 0.9em; word-break: initial; overflow-wrap: initial; overflow: auto; background: #f6f6f6; border-radius: 4px;"><code style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-radius: 0px; font-family: Menlo, Monaco, Consolas, "Andale Mono", "lucida console", "Courier New", monospace; font-size: inherit; background-color: inherit;">class Test: def __init__(self): self.foo = 11 self._bar = 23 self.__baz = 23 </code></pre></div><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">璁?#37812;?#28000;敤鍐呯疆?#27537;dir()鍑芥暟鏉ョ湅?#28229;杩?#28051;?#28725;硅薄?#27537;灞?#37804;э細</p><div style="margin: 1em 0px;"><pre style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: calc(0.888889em); font-size: 0.9em; word-break: initial; overflow-wrap: initial; overflow: auto; background: #f6f6f6; border-radius: 4px;"><code style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-radius: 0px; font-family: Menlo, Monaco, Consolas, "Andale Mono", "lucida console", "Courier New", monospace; font-size: inherit; background-color: inherit;">>>> t = Test() >>> dir(t) ['_Test__baz', '__class__', '__delattr__', '__dict__', '__dir__', '__doc__', '__eq__', '__format__', '__ge__', '__getattribute__', '__gt__', '__hash__', '__init__', '__le__', '__lt__', '__module__', '__ne__', '__new__', '__reduce__', '__reduce_ex__', '__repr__', '__setattr__', '__sizeof__', '__str__', '__subclasshook__', '__weakref__', '_bar', 'foo'] </code></pre></div><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">浠?#28051;?#37828;?#26473;?#28051;?#28725;硅薄灞?#37804;х殑鍒?#29723;?#37510;?璁?#37812;?#28000;?#37833;ョ湅?#28229;杩?#28051;?#37714;?#29723;?#38171;屽苟瀵?#37813;?#37812;?#28000;殑鍘熷?#23338;彉閲?#37722;嶇?#30324;oo锛宊bar鍜宊_baz - 鎴?#28103;?#29831;?#28003;犱細?#25950;?#21104;鍒?#28051;浜涙湁瓒g殑鍙樺寲銆?br /></p><ul style="padding: 0px; margin: 1.4em 0px; display: table;"><li style="list-style: none; display: table-row;">self.foo鍙?#38322;忓湪灞?#37804;?#37714;?#29723;?#28051;?#37828;?#32448;?#28051;?#37832;?#28103;?#37824;?#28051;篺oo銆?/li><li style="list-style: none; display: table-row;">self._bar?#27537;琛?#28051;?#37826;?#23534;忕浉鍚?- 瀹冧互_bar?#27537;褰?#23534;?#37828;?#32448;哄湪绫?#28051;?#37510;?灏卞儚鎴?#28052;?#37715;嶈杩囩殑锛屽湪杩欑?#23942;儏鍐?#28051;?#38171;?#37715;嶅涓?#37714;掔嚎浠?#28000;?#37828;?#28051;涓害瀹?#37510;?缁欑▼搴?#37723;?#28051;涓?#37819;?#32448;?#38000;屽凡銆?/li><li style="list-style: none; display: table-row;">鐒?#38000;?#38171;?#28725;?#27996;巗elf.__baz鑰岃█锛屾儏鍐电湅?#25443;鏉?#37832;?#37904;?#28051;?#37722;?#37510;?褰?#28003;犲湪璇?#37714;?#29723;?#28051;?#37820;?#32497;_baz?#26882;锛?#28003;犱細?#28229;涓嶅埌鏈?#26473;?#28051;?#37722;?#28699;楃殑鍙?#38322;?#37510;?/li></ul><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">__baz?#22189;浠涔堟儏鍐典簡锛?/p><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">濡傛灉浣犱?#26050;粏瑙?#28725;?#38171;?#28003;犱細?#28229;鍒?#23005;?#28725;硅薄涓?#37832;?#28051;涓?#37722;?#28051;篲Test__baz?#27537;灞?#37804;?#37510;?杩?#28751;?#37828;疨ython瑙?#38322;婂櫒鎵鍋氱殑鍚嶇О淇?#26967;?#37510;?瀹?#26473;?#37837;峰仛鏄?#28051;轰簡闃?#23005;?#37721;?#38322;忓湪瀛?#32491;?#28051;?#29722;?#38322;嶅啓銆?/p><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">璁?#37812;?#28000;?#37714;涘?#21700;彟涓涓?#37813;?#28766;昑est绫荤殑绫?#38171;屽苟灏?#29831;?#38322;嶅啓鏋勯?#37713;芥暟涓?#23075;?#37716;犵殑?#24135;鏈夊睘鎬э細</p><div style="margin: 1em 0px;"><pre style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: calc(0.888889em); font-size: 0.9em; word-break: initial; overflow-wrap: initial; overflow: auto; background: #f6f6f6; border-radius: 4px;"><code style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-radius: 0px; font-family: Menlo, Monaco, Consolas, "Andale Mono", "lucida console", "Courier New", monospace; font-size: inherit; background-color: inherit;">class ExtendedTest(Test): def __init__(self): super().__init__() self.foo = 'overridden' self._bar = 'overridden' self.__baz = 'overridden' </code></pre></div><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">鐜板湪锛?#28003;?#29825;?#28051;篺oo锛宊bar鍜宊_baz?#27537;鍊?#28028;氬嚭鐜板湪杩?#28051;狤xtendedTest绫荤殑?#30084;渚?#28051;?#37722;?#38171;?鎴?#28000;?#37833;ョ湅涓?#28229;?#32048;</p><div style="margin: 1em 0px;"><pre style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: calc(0.888889em); font-size: 0.9em; word-break: initial; overflow-wrap: initial; overflow: auto; background: #f6f6f6; border-radius: 4px;"><code style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-radius: 0px; font-family: Menlo, Monaco, Consolas, "Andale Mono", "lucida console", "Courier New", monospace; font-size: inherit; background-color: inherit;">>>> t2 = ExtendedTest() >>> t2.foo 'overridden' >>> t2._bar 'overridden' >>> t2.__baz AttributeError: "'ExtendedTest' object has no attribute '__baz'" </code></pre></div><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">绛?#28051;涓?#38171;?#35120;撴垜浠?#28751;?#29831;曟煡?#28229;t2 .__ baz?#27537;鍊兼椂锛?#28051;?#28000;涔堟垜浠?#28028;氬緱鍒癆ttributeError锛?鍚嶇О淇?#26967;?#29722;?#37712;?#23046;?#29785;﹀彂?#31777;锛?浜嬪疄璇?#37828;?#38171;?#26473;?#28051;?#28725;硅薄鐢氳?#34411;病鏈塤_baz灞?#37804;э細</p><div style="margin: 1em 0px;"><pre style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: calc(0.888889em); font-size: 0.9em; word-break: initial; overflow-wrap: initial; overflow: auto; background: #f6f6f6; border-radius: 4px;"><code style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-radius: 0px; font-family: Menlo, Monaco, Consolas, "Andale Mono", "lucida console", "Courier New", monospace; font-size: inherit; background-color: inherit;">>>> dir(t2) ['_ExtendedTest__baz', '_Test__baz', '__class__', '__delattr__', '__dict__', '__dir__', '__doc__', '__eq__', '__format__', '__ge__', '__getattribute__', '__gt__', '__hash__', '__init__', '__le__', '__lt__', '__module__', '__ne__', '__new__', '__reduce__', '__reduce_ex__', '__repr__', '__setattr__', '__sizeof__', '__str__', '__subclasshook__', '__weakref__', '_bar', 'foo', 'get_vars'] </code></pre></div><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">姝?#28641;?#28003;?#37721;?#28000;ョ湅鍒癬_baz鍙樻垚_ExtendedTest__baz浠?#38339;?#23005;㈡剰澶?#28103;?#37824;癸細</p><div style="margin: 1em 0px;"><pre style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: calc(0.888889em); font-size: 0.9em; word-break: initial; overflow-wrap: initial; overflow: auto; background: #f6f6f6; border-radius: 4px;"><code style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-radius: 0px; font-family: Menlo, Monaco, Consolas, "Andale Mono", "lucida console", "Courier New", monospace; font-size: inherit; background-color: inherit;">>>> t2._ExtendedTest__baz 'overridden' </code></pre></div><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">浣嗗師鏉ョ殑_Test__baz杩樺湪?#32048;</p><div style="margin: 1em 0px;"><pre style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: calc(0.888889em); font-size: 0.9em; word-break: initial; overflow-wrap: initial; overflow: auto; background: #f6f6f6; border-radius: 4px;"><code style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-radius: 0px; font-family: Menlo, Monaco, Consolas, "Andale Mono", "lucida console", "Courier New", monospace; font-size: inherit; background-color: inherit;">>>> t2._Test__baz 42 </code></pre></div><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">鍙?#28051;?#37714;掔嚎鍚嶇О淇?#26967;板?#22317;▼搴?#37723;?#37828;?#28729;屽叏閫?#37828;庣殑銆?涓嬮潰?#27537;渚?#28699;?#29831;佸疄?#31777;杩?#28051;鐐癸細</p><div style="margin: 1em 0px;"><pre style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: calc(0.888889em); font-size: 0.9em; word-break: initial; overflow-wrap: initial; overflow: auto; background: #f6f6f6; border-radius: 4px;"><code style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-radius: 0px; font-family: Menlo, Monaco, Consolas, "Andale Mono", "lucida console", "Courier New", monospace; font-size: inherit; background-color: inherit;">class ManglingTest: def __init__(self): self.__mangled = 'hello' def get_mangled(self): return self.__mangled >>> ManglingTest().get_mangled() 'hello' >>> ManglingTest().__mangled AttributeError: "'ManglingTest' object has no attribute '__mangled'" </code></pre></div><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">鍚嶇О淇?#26967;?#37828;?#37722;?#28052;?#38315;傜敤浜?#37826;?#23049;?#37722;嶇О锛?鏄殑锛屼篃閫傜敤銆?#37722;嶇О淇?#26967;?#28028;氬奖鍝嶅湪涓涓?#32491;荤殑涓?#28051;?#37826;?#28051;?#38171;屼互涓?#28051;?#28051;?#37714;掔嚎瀛?#32471;?#38171;?dunders"锛?#23534;澶寸殑<span style="font-weight: 600;">鎵鏈?/span>鍚嶇?#24110;細</p><div style="margin: 1em 0px;"><pre style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: calc(0.888889em); font-size: 0.9em; word-break: initial; overflow-wrap: initial; overflow: auto; background: #f6f6f6; border-radius: 4px;"><code style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-radius: 0px; font-family: Menlo, Monaco, Consolas, "Andale Mono", "lucida console", "Courier New", monospace; font-size: inherit; background-color: inherit;">class MangledMethod: def __method(self): return 42 def call_it(self): return self.__method() >>> MangledMethod().__method() AttributeError: "'MangledMethod' object has no attribute '__method'" >>> MangledMethod().call_it() 42 </code></pre></div><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">杩?#37828;彟涓涓?#28052;?#29825;?#28000;?#27996;烘儕璁剁殑杩愮敤鍚嶇О淇?#26967;扮殑渚?#28699;愶細</p><div style="margin: 1em 0px;"><pre style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: calc(0.888889em); font-size: 0.9em; word-break: initial; overflow-wrap: initial; overflow: auto; background: #f6f6f6; border-radius: 4px;"><code style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-radius: 0px; font-family: Menlo, Monaco, Consolas, "Andale Mono", "lucida console", "Courier New", monospace; font-size: inherit; background-color: inherit;">_MangledGlobal__mangled = 23 class MangledGlobal: def test(self): return __mangled >>> MangledGlobal().test() 23 </code></pre></div><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">?#28266;杩?#28051;?#28186;?#28699;?#28051;?#38171;屾?#25117;0鏄庝簡涓涓?#37722;?#28051;篲MangledGlobal__mangled?#27537;鍏?#28766;鍙?#38322;?#37510;?#37906;?#37722;?#37812;戝湪鍚?#28051;篗angledGlobal?#27537;绫荤殑涓?#28051;?#37826;?#28051;?#29825;?#38338;?#37721;?#38322;?#37510;?#37922;?#27996;?#37722;嶇О淇?#26967;?#38171;屾?#25123;兘澶熷湪绫荤殑test()鏂?#23049;?#37712;?#38171;屼互__mangled鏉ュ紩?#25956;_MangledGlobal__mangled鍏?#28766;鍙?#38322;?#37510;?br /><br />Python瑙?#38322;婂櫒鑷?#37716;?#28751;?#37722;嶇?#30316;_mangled鎵?#28766;?#28051;篲MangledGlobal__mangled锛屽洜涓哄?#20903;互涓?#28051;?#28051;?#37714;掔嚎瀛?#32471;?#23534;澶?#37510;?#26473;?#29723;?#37828;?#37722;嶇О淇?#26967;?#28051;?#37828;?#28051;?#38338;?#28051;庣?#35826;睘鎬?#37711;宠?#26050;殑銆傚?#20910;傜敤浜庡湪绫?#28051;?#28051;?#37826;?#28051;?#28003;跨敤?#27537;涓?#28051;?#28051;?#37714;掔嚎瀛?#32471;?#23534;澶寸殑浠?#28003;?#37722;嶇О銆?br /><br />鏈夊?#22557;?#27699;鍚告?#21057;殑鍐?#28729;?#37722;?#37510;?br /><br />鑰佸疄璇?#38171;?#26473;?#27996;?#28186;?#28699;?#37724;岃В閲?#28051;?#37828;?#28000;?#37812;戣剳瀛?#38322;岃功?#22189;鏉ョ殑銆傛垜浣滀簡涓浜?#37934;旂┒鍜?#37716;?#23480;?#37813;嶅?#21227;嚭鏉?#37510;傛垜涓?#27967;浣跨敤Python锛?#37832;夊?#22557;?#27692;勾?#31777;锛?#28003;?#37828;?#37709;?#26473;?#37837;风殑瑙?#37714;?#37724;岀?#35268;?#23107;儏鍐?#39582;?#28051;嶆?#37828;?#23092;?#37916;板湪鑴戞捣閲?#37510;?br /><br />鏈夋椂鍊欑▼搴?#37723;?#37832;閲嶈?#20346;殑鎶鑳?#37828;?#8220;妯?#23534;忚瘑鍒?#8221;锛?#38000;?#28051;旂煡閬撳湪鍝?#38322;屾煡闃呬俊鎭?#37510;傚?#20635;灉?#20557;?#28266;杩?#28051;鐐?#28051;婃?#29111;埌鏈?#37904;?#28051;嶇煡鎵鎺?#38171;岃涓嶈?#20345;?#21613;績銆傛參?#21443;鏉?#38171;岃瘯璇?#26473;欑?#22248;枃?#29687;涓殑涓浜?#28186;?#28699;?#37510;?br /><br />璁?#26473;?#27996;涙?#20634;康瀹屽叏娌夋蹈涓?#37833;?#38171;屼互渚?#28003;?#38003;?#28598;熺悊瑙?#37722;嶇О淇?#26967;扮殑鎬?#28003;撴?#29882;?#38171;屼互鍙婃垜鍚戞偍灞曠?#34425;殑涓浜涘叾浠栫殑琛?#28051;?#37510;傚?#20635;灉鏈?#28051;澶?#28003;?#37724;屽?#20903;滑涓?#37832;?#38000;岄亣锛?#28003;犱細?#29025;閬撳湪鏂囨。涓?#37816;?#28000;涔?#37833;ユ煡銆?/p><h2>4. 鍙?#37715;嶅鍜屽弻鏈?#28751;?#28051;?#37714;掔嚎 _var_</h2><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">涔?#29825;?#28000;?#27996;烘儕璁剁殑鏄?#38171;屽?#20635;灉涓涓?#37722;?#28699;?#37722;屾椂浠?#37721;?#28051;?#37714;掔嚎寮濮?#37724;岀粨鏉?#38171;屽垯涓?#28028;氬?#26050;敤鍚嶇О淇?#26967;?#37510;?鐢卞弻涓?#37714;掔嚎鍓嶇紑鍜?#37722;庣紑鍖?#37733;寸殑鍙?#38322;?#28051;嶄細琚玃ython瑙?#38322;婂櫒淇?#37824;癸細</p><div style="margin: 1em 0px;"><pre style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: calc(0.888889em); font-size: 0.9em; word-break: initial; overflow-wrap: initial; overflow: auto; background: #f6f6f6; border-radius: 4px;"><code style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-radius: 0px; font-family: Menlo, Monaco, Consolas, "Andale Mono", "lucida console", "Courier New", monospace; font-size: inherit; background-color: inherit;">class PrefixPostfixTest: def __init__(self): self.__bam__ = 42 >>> PrefixPostfixTest().__bam__ 42 </code></pre></div><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">浣?#37828;?#38171;孭ython淇?#37923;欎簡鏈夊弻鍓嶅鍜屽弻鏈?#28751;?#28051;?#37714;掔嚎?#27537;鍚嶇О锛岀敤浜庣?#35268;?#23108;敤閫?#37510;?杩?#37837;风殑渚?#28699;?#37832;夛紝__init__瀵硅薄鏋勯?#37713;芥暟锛屾垨__call__ --- 瀹?#28003;垮緱涓涓?#28725;硅薄鍙?#28000;?#29722;?#29835;冪敤銆?/p><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">杩?#27996;沝under鏂?#23049;?#38315;氬父琚?#32457;?#28051;?#32449;?#28610;囨柟娉?- 浣哖ython绀?#37718;?#28051;殑璁?#28598;?#27996;?#38171;堝?#21614;嫭鎴戣嚜?#32321;锛夐兘涓嶅枩娆?#26473;欑鏂?#23049;?#37510;?/p><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">鏈濂介伩鍏嶅湪鑷繁?#27537;绋?#25652;?#28051;?#28003;跨敤浠?#37721;?#28051;?#37714;掔嚎锛?#8220;dunders”锛?#23534;澶?#37724;岀粨灏剧殑鍚嶇О锛屼互閬?#37711;?#28051;?#28751;?#37833;ython璇█?#27537;鍙樺寲浜?#37922;熷啿绐?#37510;?/p><h2>5.鍗?#28051;?#37714;掔嚎 _</h2><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">鎸夌収涔犳儻锛?#37832;夋椂鍊?#37719;?#28051;?#37913;?#32468;?#28051;?#37714;掔嚎鏄敤浣?#28051;涓?#37722;?#28699;?#38171;?#37833;?#29723;?#32448;烘煇涓?#37721;?#38322;?#37828;?#28051;存椂?#27537;鎴?#37827;?#37711;崇揣瑕佺殑銆?br /></p><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">渚?#28641;?#38171;屽湪涓嬮潰?#27537;寰幆涓?#38171;屾垜浠?#28051;嶉渶瑕?#29825;?#38338;?#23005;e湪杩?#29723;岀殑绱㈠紩锛屾垜浠?#37721;?#28000;?#28003;跨敤“_”鏉?#29723;?#32448;哄畠鍙?#37828;?#28051;涓?#28051;存椂鍊硷細</p><div style="margin: 1em 0px;"><pre style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: calc(0.888889em); font-size: 0.9em; word-break: initial; overflow-wrap: initial; overflow: auto; background: #f6f6f6; border-radius: 4px;"><code style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-radius: 0px; font-family: Menlo, Monaco, Consolas, "Andale Mono", "lucida console", "Courier New", monospace; font-size: inherit; background-color: inherit;">>>> for _ in range(32): ... print('Hello, World.') </code></pre></div><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">浣?#28052;熷彲浠ュ湪鎷?#37714;?unpacking)琛?#26440;?#23534;?#28051;?#28751;?#37719;?#28051;?#28051;?#37714;掔嚎?#25956;浣?#8220;涓嶅?#20914;績?#27537;”鍙?#38322;?#38171;屼互蹇界暐鐗?#28729;氱殑鍊?#37510;?鍚屾牱锛?#26473;?#28051;?#37722;?#28052;夊彧鏄?#8220;渚濈収?#23475;瀹?#8221;锛屽苟涓?#28028;氬湪Python瑙?#38322;婂櫒涓?#29785;﹀彂鐗规?#23108;殑琛?#28051;?#37510;?鍗?#28051;?#28051;?#37714;掔嚎浠?#28000;?#37828;?#28051;涓?#37832;?#37825;堢殑鍙?#38322;?#37722;嶇О锛屼細鏈?#26473;?#28051;敤閫?#38000;屽凡銆?/p><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">?#28266;涓嬮潰?#27537;浠?#37934;?#32448;轰緥涓?#38171;屾垜灏嗘苯杞﹀厓缁勬媶鍒?#28051;?#37719;曠嫭?#27537;鍙?#38322;?#38171;?#28003;?#37812;戝彧瀵?#26864;滆壊鍜?#38322;岀▼鍊?#37808;熷?#30923;叮銆?浣?#37828;?#38171;?#28051;轰簡浣?#37815;?#37714;?#29723;?#26440;?#23534;忔垚鍔?#26473;?#29723;?#38171;屾?#25126;渶瑕?#28751;嗗寘鍚湪?#21395;缁?#28051;殑鎵鏈夊?#37714;嗛?#23943;?#27407;彉閲?#37510;??#28266;杩欑?#23942;儏鍐?#28051;?#38171;?#8220;_”浣?#28051;?#37719;?#28003;?#32471;?#37721;?#38322;?#37721;?#28000;ユ淳涓婄敤?#28288;?#32048;</p><div style="margin: 1em 0px;"><pre style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: calc(0.888889em); font-size: 0.9em; word-break: initial; overflow-wrap: initial; overflow: auto; background: #f6f6f6; border-radius: 4px;"><code style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-radius: 0px; font-family: Menlo, Monaco, Consolas, "Andale Mono", "lucida console", "Courier New", monospace; font-size: inherit; background-color: inherit;">>>> car = ('red', 'auto', 12, 3812.4) >>> color, _, _, mileage = car >>> color 'red' >>> mileage 3812.4 >>> _ 12 </code></pre></div><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">闄や簡?#25956;浣?#28051;存椂鍙?#38322;?#28052;?#28598;?#38171;?#8220;_”鏄?#28598;?#28598;氭暟Python REPL涓殑涓涓?#37911;规畩鍙?#38322;?#38171;屽畠琛?#32448;?#37922;?#29785;?#38322;婂櫒璇?#28028;扮殑鏈杩?#28051;涓?#29723;?#26440;?#23534;忕殑缁撴灉銆?/p><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">杩?#37837;?#28751;卞緢鏂?#28186;夸簡锛屾瘮濡?#28003;?#37721;?#28000;ュ湪涓涓?#29785;?#38322;婂櫒?#32048;璇?#28051;?#29825;?#38338;?#37711;堝墠璁?#32480;楃殑缁撴灉锛屾垨鑰?#38171;?#28003;?#37828;湪鍔?#37804;佹?#21227;缓澶?#28051;?#28725;硅薄骞?#28051;?#28729;冧滑浜?#27996;?#38171;屾?#29371;渶浜?#37711;?#32513;?#26473;?#27996;涘?#30789;薄鍒嗛厤鍚?#28699;楋細</p><div style="margin: 1em 0px;"><pre style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: calc(0.888889em); font-size: 0.9em; word-break: initial; overflow-wrap: initial; overflow: auto; background: #f6f6f6; border-radius: 4px;"><code style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border-radius: 0px; font-family: Menlo, Monaco, Consolas, "Andale Mono", "lucida console", "Courier New", monospace; font-size: inherit; background-color: inherit;">>>> 20 + 3 23 >>> _ 23 >>> print(_) 23 >>> list() [] >>> _.append(1) >>> _.append(2) >>> _.append(3) >>> _ [1, 2, 3] </code></pre></div><h2>Python涓?#37714;掔嚎鍛?#37722;嶆ā寮?- 灏?#32513;?/h2><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">浠?#28051;?#37828;?#28051;涓?#32480;鐭殑灏?#32513;?#38171;?#37719;?#8220;閫熸煡琛?#8221;锛岀綏鍒椾簡鎴戝湪鏈?#37826;?#28051;?#29835;堝?#25198;殑浜旂Python涓?#37714;掔嚎妯?#23534;忕殑鍚?#28052;夛細</p><figure style="margin: 1.4em 0px;"><img src="https://pic3.zhimg.com/80/v2-cbc5c6037101c7d33cf0acd9f00a8cfa_hd.jpg" data-caption="" data-size="normal" data-rawwidth="732" data-rawheight="314" zh-lightbox-thumb="" lazy"="" width="732" data-original="https://pic3.zhimg.com/v2-cbc5c6037101c7d33cf0acd9f00a8cfa_r.jpg" data-actualsrc="https://pic3.zhimg.com/v2-cbc5c6037101c7d33cf0acd9f00a8cfa_b.jpg" style="display: block; max-width: 100%; margin: 0px auto; cursor: zoom-in;" alt="" /></figure><hr style="margin: 4em auto; width: 240px; max-width: 100%; border-right: none; border-bottom: none; border-left: none; border-image: initial; border-top-style: solid; border-top-color: #d3d3d3;" /><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px;">浣犳?#34411;?#23384;?#21342;叆?#31777;瑙?#28699;?#28052;燩ython?#29025;璇?#28003;撶郴锛?#28003;?#37721;?#28000;ョ湅涓涓嬫垜浠?#38010;辫垂?#31777;涓涓?#28598;?#37832;?#37825;寸?#21973;簡涓婄櫨灏忔椂?#27537;鍑犵櫨涓煡璇?#37904;?#28003;撶郴鍐?#28729;癸細</p><p style="margin: 1.4em 0px 0px;"><a href="http://link.zhihu.com/?target=http%3A//www.magedu.com/73198.html/%3FPython_wenzhang_zhihu_jinke_16daopythonmiansiti_34019714" wrap="" external"="" target="_blank" rel="nofollow noreferrer" data-za-detail-view-id="1043" style="text-decoration-line: none; cursor: pointer; border-bottom: 1px solid #808080;">銆愯秴鍏?#37825;寸悊銆?#37510;奝ython鑷?#37716;?#37718;?#37711;?#38003;?#23534;?#24386;浠庡叆闂?#37714;扮簿閫?#37510;媝ython鍩虹鏁欑▼绗?#29825;?/a></p></div></div><div style="margin: 0px auto; color: #8590a6; padding-top: 16px; padding-bottom: 16px; overflow: hidden; width: 690px; font-family: -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Microsoft YaHei", "Source Han Sans SC", "Noto Sans CJK SC", "WenQuanYi Micro Hei", sans-serif; background-color: #ffffff;">?#24386;甯冧簬 2018-04-26</div><div style="overflow: hidden; width: 690px; margin: 0px auto; display: flex; color: #1a1a1a; font-family: -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Microsoft YaHei", "Source Han Sans SC", "Noto Sans CJK SC", "WenQuanYi Micro Hei", sans-serif; font-size: medium; background-color: #ffffff;"><div post-topics"="" style="display: flex; flex-flow: row wrap; align-items: center; margin-bottom: -10px; padding-top: 16px; padding-bottom: 16px;"><div topic"="" data-za-detail-view-path-module="TopicItem" data-za-extra-module="{"card":{"content":{"type":"Topic","token":"19552832"}}}" style="position: relative; display: inline-block; height: 33px; padding-right: 12px; padding-left: 12px; font-size: 13px; line-height: 33px; color: #0084ff; vertical-align: top; border-radius: 100px; background: rgba(0, 132, 255, 0.1); margin-right: 5px; overflow: hidden; margin-bottom: 10px;"><a href="https://www.zhihu.com/topic/19552832" target="_blank" style="text-decoration-line: none;"><div style="position: relative; display: inline-block;"><div id="Popover3-toggle" aria-haspopup="true" aria-expanded="false" aria-owns="Popover3-content">Python</div></div></a></div></div></div><br />Reference:<br />https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/36173202</div><img src ="http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/aggbug/216230.html" width = "1" height = "1" /><br><br><div align=right><a style="text-decoration:none;" href="http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/" target="_blank">鏉板摜</a> 2019-02-02 01:51 <a href="http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/02/02/216230.html#Feedback" target="_blank" style="text-decoration:none;">鍙戣〃璇?#29825;?/a></div>]]></description></item><item><title>[?#27974;杞絔ls command not found http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/01/23/216218.html鏉板摜鏉板摜Tue, 22 Jan 2019 16:47:00 GMThttp://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/01/23/216218.htmlhttp://www.kffa.tw/guijie/comments/216218.htmlhttp://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/01/23/216218.html#Feedback0http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/comments/commentRss/216218.htmlhttp://www.kffa.tw/guijie/services/trackbacks/216218.html浠?#28598;╁湪鎼?#23524;虹紪璇戠幆澧冪殑?#26882;鍊欏嚭?#24135;?#31777;涓鐐?#38338;?#26864;?#38171;岃嚜?#32321;?#27537;ls鍛?#28000;?#28051;?#28610;界敤?#31777;锛岀櫨搴?#28051;涓嬫壘鍒颁簡姝?#29785;?#38171;?x BaiDu锛?/p>
    鍘熷洜锛氬湪璁剧疆?#24134;澧?#37721;?#38322;忔椂锛岀紪杈憄rofile鏂囦欢娌?#37832;?#37712;?#23005;?#32429;?#38171;?#28725;艰?#26449;湪鍛?#28000;?#29723;?#28051;?ls绛夊懡浠?#28051;?#38003;?#28598;?#29831;?#37714;?#37510;?br />瑙?#37712;?#37826;规锛氬湪鍛?#28000;?#29723;?#28051;嬫?#25779;叆涓嬮潰杩欐灏卞彲浠ヤ簡
export PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/root/bin


鏈?#37826;囨槸浣滆?#37720;熷垱锛岃浆杞?#36423;?#26916;讳繚璇?#37826;囩珷?#27537;瀹屾?#23384;?#39582;?#37837;囨槑?#22189;澶?#38171;坆log.sina.com.cn/xywatersky锛夛紝璇?#28751;?#38322;?#28003;滆?#38171;屾敮鎸?#37720;熷垱銆?/strong>



]]>Google Dochttp://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/01/17/216205.html鏉板摜鏉板摜Wed, 16 Jan 2019 20:09:00 GMThttp://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/01/17/216205.htmlhttp://www.kffa.tw/guijie/comments/216205.htmlhttp://www.kffa.tw/guijie/archive/2019/01/17/216205.html#Feedback0http://www.kffa.tw/guijie/comments/commentRss/216205.htmlhttp://www.kffa.tw/guijie/services/trackbacks/216205.htmlGoogle鍔炲叕瀹?#28610;?#28000;?#38171;屾槸Google?#27537;涓涓湪?#22158;鏂?#28699;?#28598;勭悊銆?#37922;?#28699;?#29723;ㄦ牸鍜屾?#26050;?#34425;▼搴?#37510;?006骞?0鏈?0鏃oogle灏哤ritely涓?#37827;?#28051;婫oogle Spreadsheets闆嗘垚涓篏oogle鏂囨。锛屽?#20906;殑绗?#28051;?#28051;?#32513;?#28000;?#38171;屾?#26050;ず鍔?#38003;?#38171;屽湪?#32041;?#21446;Tonic Systems鎵寮?#24386;?#27537;鑰屾妧?#28275;涔?#37722;?#27996;?007骞?鏈?7鏃ュ彂甯?#37510;?/span> 缁?#37737;虹櫨绉?br />
G
oogle search: Google Doc and you will get it. If you open a docx file, you input the emails of other people and can "share(鍏?#27996;?". You can select "鍙?#28000;?#32514;?#26440;?, "鍙?#28000;ユ煡?#28229;", and "鍙?#28000;?#29831;?#29825;?.

In my flagged email (20181006), "our previous reading list", how to create this? In google doc, in the top left corner, select "琛ㄦ牸", "鏂板缓鐢?#28699;?#29723;ㄦ牸". Then share the "琛ㄦ牸" to the people you want to share. Only the people who you share the link can see this. Sui Li send me a test docx on 20190116 (test in my google doc), then I can receive the email reminder. When I revise this document, I do not have to save this file. If I want to see the revising history, click the last menu. You can see that the color of different people's writing is different.
This is with Sui Li's help.

We can also use "鑵?#29825;?#37826;囨。". I logged into this on my computer using my webchat account on January 21, 2019.


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